This report reflects discussions at the OECD conference “AI: Intelligent Machines, Smart Policies” held in Paris on 26-27 October, 2017. After discussing the state of Artificial intelligence (AI) research – in particular ‘machine learning’ –, speakers illustrated the opportunities that AI provides to improve economies and societies, in areas ranging from scientific discovery and satellite data analysis to music creation. There was broad agreement that the rapid development of AI calls for national and international policy frameworks that engage all stakeholders. Discussions focused on the need for policy to facilitate the adoption of AI systems to promote innovation and growth, help address global challenges, and boost jobs and skills development, while at the same time establishing... appropriate safeguards to ensure that AI systems are human-centric and benefit people broadly. Transparency and oversight, algorithmic discrimination and privacy abuses were key concerns, as were new liability, responsibility, security and safety questions.