This book includes a selection of theoretical and practical accounts of the acquisition of Portuguese from a broad range of linguistic perspectives. This collection is particularly appealing in the broad academic sphere of language acquisition due to the fact that there has yet to be one entirely dedicated to Portuguese as an Additional Language (PAL). This volume showcases the breadth of research being carried out on topics ranging from the acquisition of aspects from the main language modules (syntax, morphology, semantics, phonology, and pragmatics) to applied perspectives involving corpus-based approaches and experimental methodologies. Moreover, we present studies addressing a variety of learning contexts and learner types. The target audience includes researching scholars with a... background in second language acquisition studies interested in learning more about the acquisition of Portuguese as an Additional Language from linguistic perspectives.;;This study explores the rate of L3 development among learners that transfer their L1 versus L2, via examination of differential object marking (DOM) by English/Spanish bilingual learners of L3 Brazilian Portuguese (BP). At the L3 initial stages, L1 English/L2 Spanish and L1 Spanish/L1 English speakers transfer non-facilitative DOM from Spanish (Giancaspro et al., 2015). We compare these groups with advanced L3 BP learners to test the hypothesis that L2 transfer is overcome faster than L1 transfer. Data from advanced L3 BP groups show that the L1 Spanish group patterns with both initial stages Spanish groups. However, the L2 Spanish group patterns with BP controls, suggesting that the L2 Spanish group has overcome non-facilitative transfer, while the L1 Spanish group has not.;;This study explores the production of subject and object pronouns in the case of Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and European Portuguese (EP) early and late bidialectal bilinguals. The distribution of empty categories in the two systems differs in terms of syntactic and semantic constraints. In this light, we test the extent to which Brazilians acquiring EP naturalistically in Portugal display cross-linguistic effects. Our results indicate that cross-linguistic effects are found both in BP and EP for late learners, but only in BP for early learners. We believe that the high degree of typological proximity between BP and EP and the structural differences between subjects and objects can better explain these learners’ outcomes.;;This chapter investigates three important skills that facilitate L2 communication: (1) perception (listening), (2) spoken word recognition (understanding) and (3) production (speaking) and their interrelation. In Part One, we present a review of the literature pertaining to L2 acquisition in Portuguese, with a particular focus on phonological acquisition. In Part Two, we review a series of recent studies that investigated the acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese vowels by naïve Australian English (AusE) and European Spanish (ES) listeners at the initial stage of learning. Each study targets one of the aforementioned skills and we will discuss the interrelation between them at the initial stage of L2 acquisition. We conclude the chapter by discussing the implications of this research for second-language learners and teachers of Portuguese.;;This study addresses the multi-directionality of vowel transfer by L1 Riverplate Spanish learners of Brazilian Portuguese. We verify the influence of the second language (L2) and the third language (L3) on the production of the mother tongue (L1). Our results showed that (1) the development of the Brazilian Portuguese vowel system was highly dependent on the language systems the participants had previously acquired, and (2) the presence of an L2 or L3 system also affected the L1 (and the L2 system, in the case of the acquisition of an L3). These results shed some light on the multi-directionality of language transfer, as they show that all language systems are in constant development and interaction throughout the whole lifespan.;;This chapter investigates the acquisition of tense and aspect by Chinese learners of Portuguese as an L2 from a variationist perspective (Bayley, 2013). Difficulties in acquiring the aspectual contrasts set by the Perfect Preterit and Imperfect Preterit tenses in Romance languages have been widely documented (Blyth, 2005; Giacalone-Ramat, 2002; Kihlstedt, 2002; Martins, 2008). This study investigates the role of for the marking of Perfect and Imperfect Preterit following the tenets of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis (LAH). It intends to design a different look into the LAH, as it considers other variables in interaction. Results show that lexical aspect plays a significant role in the learners’ use of inflectional morphology for both verb tenses, showing the dynamics of the interlanguage continuum.;;This study aims to investigate how international students at a Brazilian university conceptualize their experience of learning Portuguese as an Additional Language (PAL). In the light of Cognitive Linguistics and at an interface with Applied Linguistics, we identify, analyze, and interpret metaphors and metonymies (Cameron, 2003, 2010; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) that emerge from a focus group discussion of learners of PAL about their experiences. Therefore, we investigate what the PAL learning process is like from an emic perspective. Building on previous work by Ferreira (2014), Gomes Jr. (2015), and Oliveira and Ferreira (2016), results point to the use of conceptual metaphors such as language is a container , culture is a parent , and language is a commodity .;;Despite the salient benefits of using language corpora to guide and promote second language acquisition, it is not a straightforward proposition to develop a pedagogical approach based on the use of a language corpus. In the present chapter, we address the implementation of Flowerdew’s concept of “pedagogic mediation” through the use of a guided-induction, corpus-based approach to the teaching of Portuguese as a third language to speakers of Spanish and English. We use a contrastive approach and focus on linguistic properties that are systematically different in Portuguese and Spanish and that could potentially be subject to negative crosslinguistic influence.;;This chapter describes a study investigating the question of whether and to what extent the presence of the donor language (L2; Spanish) and the first language (L1; English) in a reading comprehension task facilitates or impedes lexical learning in a related language (L3; Portuguese). The study also addresses the role of the learner’s cognitive aptitude (as measured by the High-level Language Aptitude Battery, Hi-LAB; Doughty et al., 2010; Linck et al., 2013). We discuss the results in light of the importance of perceived similarities and differences between related languages in multilingual learning, as well as the importance of understanding the ways in which learners with different levels of cognitive aptitude may be differentially able to leverage existing linguistic knowledge.;;Despite increasing need for on-demand, autonomous language learning, difficult technical issues render this approach insufficient without a human in the loop (e.g., blended learning). In this chapter, we discuss how recent advances in human language technology (HLT), cognitive science, and second language acquisition (SLA) combined can address seemingly intractable problems (e.g., intelligent feedback on error). We introduce an HLT-enabled adaptive language learning platform and examine the results from a pilot study in which English native speakers highly proficient in Spanish as a second language used the platform to learn Portuguese as a third language. Such “conversion” training from Spanish to Portuguese provides an ideal testbed for these innovative HLT and SLA ideas.;;This paper discusses the role of implicit and explicit knowledge in Second Language Acquisition (SLA). Through Action Research (AR) across a three-year period, involving 160 native English-speaking adult participants from Australia, with little to no exposure to second/foreign language learning, this research explores how language students draw on their explicit and implicit knowledge of their native language to inform their sense-making of a second language. This research finds that students utilise their explicit/implicit knowledge of their native language as a framework to make sense of the target language, in this case, Portuguese. It further finds that students with poor explicit knowledge in their native language have difficulty grasping explicit instruction in the target language.;;Drawing from enunciative linguistics (Benveniste, 1966; 1974)1 and the anthropology of enunciation (Dessons, 2006), this study suggests that both teacher and student discourses are rooted in speaker and language analyst categories. Analysis of dialogues between a teacher and her students in a Portuguese as an additional language classroom revealed two mechanisms: (1) the teacher’s history of utterances, and (2) the learners’ inquiries. Both mechanisms address reorganization of form and meaning based on previous experiences in the language. Importance of language awareness and implications for teacher education are discussed.