Metaphors are essential to scientists themselves and strongly influence science communication. Through careful analyses of metaphors actually used in science texts, recordings, and videos, this book explores the essential functions of conceptual metaphor in the conduct of science, teaching of science, and how scientific ideas are promoted and popularized. With an accessible introduction to theory and method this book prepares scientists, science teachers, and science writers to take advantage of recent shifts in metaphor theories and methods. Metaphor specialists will find theoretical issues explored in studies of bacteriology, cell reproduction, marine biology, physics, brain function and social psychology. We see the degree of conscious or intentional use of metaphor in shaping our... conceptual systems and constraining inferences. Metaphor sources include social structure, embodied experience, abstract or mathematical formulations. The results are sometimes innovative hypotheses and robust conclusions; other times pedagogically useful, if inaccurate, stepping stones or, at worst, misleading fictions.;;In this introduction, we start by providing an overview of how metaphor makes science accessible (§ 1) The first part describes the intended readership of this book and introduces them to studies of metaphor in science. We then provide the theoretical foundation for the study of metaphor in science that all of the contributions in this volume are based on: Conceptual Metaphor Theory (§ 2) The third part (§ 3) introduces the three interrelated functions or levels of metaphor that are vital for making science accessible: language, thought, and communication. An overview of contributions to this volume concludes this chapter (§ 4).;;Consistent with conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), metaphor use in biology is characterized by three overarching metaphorical themes: The Semiotic Metaphor, Teleology and Emergence/Supervenience. These themes are applied in analyzing metaphor use in the study of cellular systems. Use of metaphors drawn from social domains is extensive and systematic. In science teaching, attention should be paid to how scientists acquire and evaluate new knowledge, and convey new findings. Abductive inference as a means of arriving at a best explanation is of great pedagogical value. Abductive inference depends upon metaphors grounded in embodied and social conceptual frameworks. Explicit acknowledgment of metaphorical usage in science teaching illuminates the path from scientific observations toward robust theories.;;A substantial body of research has accumulated on the use of metaphor and analogy in science, their role in the construction of novel concepts during learning, and their strategic deployment in instruction. Despite this significant body of work, we still do not have a coherent picture of the role of metaphor in how a scientific concept comes to be understood. This chapter will bring together previous studies on the role of metaphor in making science accessible in order to put forward an account of how scientists ground their understanding of the various aspects of the concept of energy metaphorically in multiple image schematic knowledge structures and how this is reflected in the language of scientists and communicated in textbooks.;;This contribution analyses metaphors in expert bioscientific texts on reproductive technologies from cloning to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in German print media during the time when, according to some German journalists, restrictive attitudes seemed ripe for change. The study uses systematic metaphor analysis to investigate the functional content of metaphors for those producing a text. It shows how conventional metaphors contribute to the popularization of science, as they bring new reproductive technologies into the realm of our everyday experience. For scientists, this work shows the fine line between explanatory use of metaphors and distortions which can harm the reputation of science. It may foster a nonscientist’s ability to interpret metaphors in the production of hope in the promise of new technologies.;;This chapter examines the metaphorical expressions used to explain apoptosis in press popularisations. The study was performed on a bilingual English-Spanish subset of 58 texts on apoptosis identified from a corpus of 300 cancer articles published in The Guardian , The Times , El País and El Mundo . The analysis shows that most metaphors coincide with those found in scientific articles and there are few creative explanatory images in the English and Spanish popularisations. The English articles make greater use of the suicide image whereas the Spanish texts rely more on variants based on “cell death” and “die”. In certain contexts, some metaphors are ambiguous and confuse rather than clarify the process while others might not be considered the most appropriate choices.;;The relationship between multimodality and cognitive effects has become an important topic of discussion in Cognitive Linguistics. A growing number of studies explore the multimodal manifestations of figurative thought in a wide range of domains. However, little research has been done on visual and auditory metaphor in science. This chapter examines (i) pictures from a corpus of publications covering different biology subdomains and (ii) video clips that feature animals and biological processes. The corpus includes expert material and popular science resources. Empirical evidence is provided that visuals, non-verbal sounds, and words work either separately or together to construe metaphors, which have a major role in building scientific theories in biology and in communicating these theories to laypeople and learners.;;Metaphors appear in scientific theories, guide scientists, teach students and fascinate the public. This chapter sketches a kind of vocation or métier for scientific metaphors in physics and then applies the same outline to three influential conceptual metaphors in social science – dataset , social field , and dynamical system , along with their respective sub-mappings. All three are in continuous use and often reliant on each other. Using corpora derived from recent social science literature I show how metaphors stimulate hypotheses, then are extended to account for results in successive rounds of observation and theory development, tracing the degree to which each metaphor is useful and retained over the years. Of special interest are supplementary metaphors introduced deliberately to summarize complex source domains.;;This chapter analyzes three stops along the life path of the influential metaphor the brain is a computer and the mind is its program . At the first two stops, the philosophers Searle, Hofstadter and Dennett argue about the literal truth of this metaphor in two academic papers. They embed the metaphor in complex metaphorical analogies, i.e., deliberate metaphors , for primarily persuasive purposes. The last stop analyzed is an academic lecture in philosophy which aims at explaining the metaphorical reasoning of the philosophers. The analysis focuses on the professor’s modifications of one of Searle’s deliberate metaphors. These modifications result in a misrepresentation of Searle’s view on the mind. Linguistic evidence indicates that this misrepresentation influences the students’ concept of the mind.;;This final chapter uses the metaphor characteristics set forth in the introductory chapter to comment on the individual studies reported here. Where the introductory chapter describes the principles of modern metaphor research that promise to improve access to science, this chapter highlights the actual application of these principles as found in the chapters of this book. When we focus on key requirements of scientific inquiry – description, explanation, and prediction – metaphor is found to be both very helpful and sometimes to pose difficulties. Such results are reviewed here, with discussions intended to benefit scientists, communicators, and metaphor scholars.