This volume addresses a wide range of phenomena including intonation, restructuring, clitic climbing, aspectual structure, subject focus marking, code-switching, lenition, loanwords, and heritage learning that are central in Hispanic linguistics today. The authors approach these issues from a variety of recent theoretical approaches and innovative methodologies and make important contributions to our current understanding of language acquisition, theoretical and descriptive linguistics, and language contact. This collection of articles is a testimony to the breadth and degree of specialization of the scholarly interest in the field. The selection of refereed chapters included in this volume were originally presented at the 20th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (HLS) hosted at Georgetown... University, 2016. The book should be read with interest by scholars and graduate students hoping to gain insight into the issues currently debated in Hispanic Linguistics.;;This study explores the perceptual development of intonation in questions and statements in L2 Spanish. It presents cross-sectional data from 189 L2 learners from five different proficiency levels and 10 Spanish native controls. Participants performed an intonation matching task consisting of deciding whether sentences presented aurally and visually matched. Perception accuracy and reaction time results are consistent with the gradual acquisition of intonational cues, particularly for statements and yes-no questions. Statements are identified faster and more accurately than yes-no questions, suggesting that the latter are harder to process and acquire. Consistent with Trimble (2013) and Nibert (2005, 2006), our findings suggest that intermediate II learners are beginning to acquire the intonational cues that distinguish statements from yes-no questions in Spanish.;;DeKeyser (2007a) submits that second-language acquisition research must identify the ideal task-design features for automatizing grammatical abilities in practice. We therefore report the results of a study that used meaningful computer assisted language learning (CALL) practice to promote foreign-language learners’ proceduralization of Spanish mood-selection in relative clauses (e.g., Busco un libro que es/sea muy interesante ) premised on skill acquisition theory (DeKeyser, 2007b). The results indicate that, when CALL practice is deliberate, meaningful, and entails metalinguistic feedback (Cerezo, 2010), learners process mood selection more fluently and efficiently as practice progresses. The analysis also indicates that elaborate practice activities (i.e., involving multiple features of relative clauses) are more effective at promoting grammatical proceduralization than simple activities.;;This project investigates the intonational characteristics of information-seeking wh-in-situ and yes/no questions in Spanish. Data from eight Spanish-Basque bilinguals show that while the former tend to display final rising contours, the latter are primarily circumflex, especially in participants with higher Basque dominance. Our results provide evidence that both question types are licensed by a null intonational morpheme, as proposed by Cheng and Rooryck (2000) for French. However, this morpheme in Spanish is encoded as an elevated high tone, rather than a rising contour. Furthermore, Spanish wh-in-situ questions show higher tonal ranges than in French (Déprez et al. 2013). We suggest that this results from focus assignment on the wh-word and its obligatory placement at the end of the intonational phrase.;;Morphological awareness in a second language (L2) enhances depth of vocabulary knowledge and is better developed when taught explicitly than by mere exposure to morphologically complex words. However, suffixes are not sufficiently treated in L2 textbooks, and little is known about which suffixes should be taught and which suffixes are more easily learned. Based on a corpus analysis of Spanish L1 and L2 speakers, as well as a correlational study about the characteristics of Spanish suffixes, this paper proposes 12 derivational suffixes that should be introduced in Spanish L2 classrooms.;;This paper examines clitic climbing in contexts featuring Spanish parecer ‘seem’, a verb that has been claimed to lack restructuring altogether in Spanish (Gallego, 2009; Torrego, 1996; Zagona, 1982). This paper identifies several contexts favoring clitic climbing with parecer . In particular, 3rd person clitic climbing is favored with psychological predicates and functional elements such as negation, temporal priority adverbs, and left dislocated elements. It is argued that Spanish parecer is a bona fide example of restructuring (R- parecer ). This paper offers an account of R- parecer in terms of Cinque’s (2004, 2006) approach to restructuring. Moreover, this paper also investigates whether R- parecer is subject to Cinque’s (2004, 2006) rigidly ordered functional hierarchy of the clause. It is shown that Spanish parecer and French sembler ‘seem’ deviate from Cinque’s functional hierarchy. Thus, this paper concludes that we must leave open the possibility that lexical verbs may also give rise to restructuring in Romance.;;Spanish has two markers (claimed to be in free alternation) to convey that an event is in progress at reference time: the Simple Present (e.g., canta, ‘sings’ ) and the Present Progressive (e.g., está cantando, ‘is singing’ ). Based on evidence from sentence acceptability studies in three different Spanish dialects, we show that the distribution of the two markers is not random, but sensitive to contextual modulation. Specifically, results show that the (ambiguous) Simple Present is more acceptable in contexts where interlocutors share perceptual access to the event at issue. Otherwise, participants favor the (unambiguous) Present Progressive. We conclude that this variation reflects and is constrained by the well-attested grammaticalization path in which progressive markers gradually generalize to become imperfective markers.;;This paper argues that the stage-level and individual-level distinctions for adjectival predicates, diagnosed in Spanish by the copulas ser and estar , can be derived by positing a sortal distinction in the temporal arguments in the syntax: The temporal argument of individual-level adjectives denotes time intervals, whereas the time argument of stage-level adjectives denotes time instants. We provide evidence from the (un-)acceptability of certain temporal modifiers, the progressive, and lifetime effects. We furthermore show how our account can also explain other instances of the ser and estar distribution beyond adjectives, such as verbal and adjectival passives and locative constructions with and without eventive subjects.;;In Spanish adverbial clauses containing cuando ‘when’ and a present-tense verb, it is assumed that indicative expresses habituality, but subjunctive futurity. However, in Rioplatense, indicative [I] occurs in future-framed adverbials, conveying epistemic pragmatic meaning: Cuando bajás [I] del bondi, llamame ‘When you get off the bus, call me.’ An online questionnaire containing 32 contextualized sentences was distributed to Rioplatense speakers ( N = 140), and respondents assigned acceptability ratings using a Likert scale. Mixed-effects linear regression modeling shows that indicative is felicitous with immediate and temporally-delimited actions, and when epistemic certainty is conveyed; subjunctive is preferred for distant/unrestricted future actions, or uncertainty. These findings suggest an alternative criterion for mood choice in Rioplatense, based on epistemicity rather than differentiation between habitual and future events.;;The aim of the present study is to provide an account of the different strategies, both syntactic and prosodic, employed by American English and Peninsular Spanish speakers in subject focus marking. Data obtained through parallel experimental designs revealed that prosodic marking of focus in-situ is possible in both languages both for informational and contrastive focus. Nonetheless, in the expression of contrastive focus Peninsular Spanish speakers increase the use of clefting while American English speakers exploit prosodic strategies like creaky voice. Differences in the pitch range implemented on focalized subjects were against the posed prediction. This study, nonetheless, contributes to the lacking cross-linguistic comparisons of these two languages and explores the interconnections between syntax and prosody.;;In the Central American countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, /s/ not only weakens to [h] and [Ø] but is variably produced as a voiceless fricative that is perceptually similar to interdental [θ]. While this sound, which I refer to as [sθ], has become a defining characteristic of these dialects, little is known about its acoustic nature or what drives its use linguistically. This paper aims to forge a more complete understanding of this sound in Central America via an exploration of these components in the Spanish of El Salvador. Acoustic and sociophonetic analyses of [sθ] in the speech of 72 Salvadorans reveal that this sound can be situated on an articulatory continuum between [s] and [h] and may be the result of gestural undershoot within a framework of gradient consonant lenition.;;This study offers an analysis of Afro-Peruvian Spanish (APS) declarative intonation. Our findings indicate that this dialect presents intonational features that diverge from other varieties of Spanish. It shows minimal downstepping across utterances and a predominant use of the L+H* pitch accent, even in prenuclear position, where L+>H* is more commonly cited in neutral contexts. At intermediate phrase edges, the most common APS boundary tone is L- rather than H-, which is usually employed in other varieties to indicate the continuation of a thought. Our results evidence a simplified set of phonological targets, which are analyzed as the byproduct of SLA processes that were subsequently conventionalized and nativized at the community level by later generations of APS speakers.;;There is continued debate on what determines the rule-governed behavior of intrasentential code-switching. Central to this debate is whether it is essential to differentiate between the languages involved, i.e., a matrix language and an embedded language . In favor of such an approach is Myers-Scotton’s (1993, 2002) Matrix Language Frame Model, whereas MacSwan’s (1999, 2014) Minimalist approach to code-switching operates independently of such a notion. To compare these two frameworks, a written Acceptability Judgment Task was completed by highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals. The results suggest that the (un)grammaticality of the subject-predicate switch in embedded contexts does not align with the predictions made by the proposal by Jake (1994), an analysis that operates under the Matrix Language Frame Model. Proposals within the Minimalist approach to code-switching, both van Gelderen and MacSwan (2008) and González-Vilbazo and Koronkiewicz (2016), however, are effective at predicting grammaticality.;;This comparative study of loanwords in the language of technology and of fashion and beauty in Spanish shows that their behavior is starkly different in these semantic fields. Data from Spanish language web pages show that lexical borrowing is more frequent in fashion than in technology, borrowability of parts of speech varies across these fields, technology loanwords are almost exclusively Anglicisms but in fashion they come also from other languages and have a more complex etymology, there is greater morphological integration among technology than fashion loanwords, and borrowing in technology is often accompanied by a kind of metalinguistic commentary that reflects attitudes and beliefs that is not seen in the fashion data.;;Focusing on Spanish future morphology as the property under investigation, this study contributes to the literature on heritage speaker bilingualism by exploring whether adult Spanish heritage speakers are able to distinguish between its two possible interpretations: temporal and epistemic. To this end, we present production and comprehension data from adult heritage speakers as well as from dialect-matched adult immigrants living in the United States. While both groups show robust knowledge of future morphology to express temporal futurity, our findings reveal significant differences in their access to and production of the epistemic interpretation. We therefore document a case of convergent simplification whereby the outcome observed constitutes a reduction of the possibilities associated with future tense morphology to make Spanish more similar to English.;;The present investigation aims to facilitate our understanding of Spanish in the Southeastern United States – a region that despite its rapid growth over the last two decades, has received little attention in the literature. Analyses of four linguistic variables indicated that while second generation heritage speakers produced significantly more English discourse markers than first generation immigrants, realization of phonetic variables was similar across groups. An examination of the overall patterns across the four variables (i.e., “variable swarm”), however, suggests that heritage speakers are beginning to integrate contact-induced characteristics into their speech faster than immigrants do. By examining multiple variables simultaneously, the present study therefore offers important insight into the processes of new dialect formation, convergence, and leveling in an understudied region.;;This paper provides a legal perspective on the “Spanish Creole debate”, the debate concerning the paucity of Spanish creoles in the Americas (Lipski 2005; McWhorter 2000). In so doing, it presents the Legal Hypothesis of Creole Genesis (LHCG) (Sessarego 2015, 2017a) and tests it on Colombian Chocó, a remote region, far away from urban centers and legal courts, where law could hardly be enforced during the colonial period.