In Peru, the first introduction of six species of beneficials occurred in 1904 for control of cotton white scale. By 1969, more than 20 other beneficial species had been imported for control of scales, aphids and lepidopterans in important crops. Many species established and still control pests today. In 1961, the Center for Introduction and Rearing of Useful Insects was created for biocontrol of the most economically important pests. Identification of parasitoids and predators, study of their biology and development of mass-production methods were executed to optimize their use. From 1979, research concentrated on the behaviour of parasitoids and predators of mealybugs, scales and lepidopteran pests. Also, collection and investigation of entomopathogenic fungi was initiated. In the late... 1990s, a National Program for Biological Control was created to intensify biocontrol in important crops through training of professionals and promotion and sale of biocontrol agents to farmers. Biocontrol agents were supplied to different agricultural valleys via a network of production laboratories, which reared 42 species of biocontrol agents to control pests in more than 45 crops. The area under augmentative biocontrol increased from 10,000 ha to 253,000 ha in a 6-year period. By 2015, 177 exotic species of biocontrol agents had been introduced into Peru and 53 of these introductions resulted in complete or substantial classical or augmentative control of the pest. In Peru, the use of biocontrol agents has grown due to the increased demand by producers for safe and healthy products for internal and external markets, by consumers for products free of pesticide residues and by the government to achieve greater sustainability in agricultural production.