Delta regions of the Cauvery River basin are one of the significant areas of rice production in India. In spite of large-scale utilization of the river basin for irrigation and drinking purposes, the lack of appropriate water management has seemingly deteriorated the water quality due to increasing anthropogenic activities. Vellore is the second most populous district of Tamil Nadu in India where the Palar River flowing towards east for about 295 Km. Vellore is surrounded by many leather tanneries and small scale dying industries and their effluents are discharged into the Palar river causing impact on the quality of the underground water. To assess the extent of deterioration, physicochemical characteristics of surface water were analyzed select regions of Cauvery Delta River basin and... Palar region, Tamil Nadu, during March 2016 to May 2016. This study aimed to examine quality of drinking groundwater. The results represented whether the water was suitable or unsuitable for drinking purposes in this area. It was also observed that some areas like Tiruvarur, Needamangalam, Kamalapuram, Arcot, Soraiyur, Ranipet had low quality drinking water. It is suggested to take some necessary measures for supplying desirable water to the people living in these areas.