Antarctica is a unique place for soil, biological, and ecologicalinvestigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during thelast century, when different national Antarctic expeditions visited the sixthcontinent with the aim of investigating nature and the environment. Antarcticinvestigations are comprised of field surveys mainly in the terrestriallandscapes, where the polar stations of different countries are situated.That is why the main and most detailed soil surveys were conducted in theMcMurdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, LarsemannHills and the Schirmacher Oasis. Our investigations were conducted during the53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions in the base of soil pits, andsamples were collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic... regions. Sub-Antarcticor maritime landscapes are considered to be very different from Antarcticlandscapes due to differing climatic and geogenic conditions. Soils ofdiverse zonal landscapes were studied with the aim of assessing the microbialbiomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbialcommunities. This investigation shows that Antarctic soils are quite diversein profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soilsare characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons aswell as by an upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers wererevealed in peat soils of King George Island, where its thickness reach, insome cases, was 80 cm. These soils as well as soils formed under guano arecharacterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC), between7.22 and 33.70%. Coastal and continental Antarctic soils exhibit lessdeveloped Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol, with TOC levelsbetween 0.37 and 4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration werehigher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones, which can beinterpreted as a result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants inorganic and organo-mineral horizons. The soils of King George Island alsohave higher portions of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g−1) comparedto coastal (max 0.26 mg g−1) and continental (max 0.22 mg g−1)Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils differ from Antarctic ones mainly byhaving increased organic layer thickness and total organic carbon content,higher microbial biomass carbon content, basal respiration, and metabolicactivity levels.