Abstract(#br)Background(#br)Surgical education serves as the foundation for high-quality, efficient patient care. Because clinical knowledge is gained and newer surgical techniques developed, this material is incorporated into the curricula of surgical trainees. Methods for studying this integration vary widely, however, providing data that, at times, is challenging to interpret in the context of patient care and outcomes.(#br)Methods(#br)A review of the literature was conducted to evaluate current practices in surgical education research, as well as topics areas of focus.(#br)Results(#br)Several techniques in surgical education research currently exist, including surveys, knowledge assessments, tests of skill, and single-arm educational interventions, which may or may not include a... prepost design with assessments administered both before and immediately following the intervention. The applicability of these measures to patient outcomes is variable.(#br)Conclusion(#br)Research in surgical education represents a field of great interest, with opportunity for novel investigations among a broad collection of topic areas. Educational research should be approached in a methodologically rigorous fashion with high investigational standards in order to advance the education of surgical trainees and the care of surgical patients.