Publisher Summary(#br)This chapter emphasizes a few aspects of a substantial and growing literature on relationships among the emotional qualities of stimuli, the emotion-related processing that they prompt, and their effects on memory. These effects are prominent in, but not confined to, some types of psychopathology. Indeed, it should be understood that emotion is an ongoing modulator of memory even in healthy or normal individuals, just as, conversely, memory feeds and alters emotion. Thus, both emotion phenomena and memory phenomena are better understood if each is better understood. Many of the findings in the neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience literatures bearing on whether valence affects memory to the extent emotional arousal does come from studies of psychopathology.... Emotional stimulus qualities appear to enhance or impair memory depending on the nature of the task and the roles of the brain regions involved. In contrast, depression has been associated with impaired memory performance, via prefrontal deactivation with consequent impairment in the use of mnemonic strategies. An important issue to consider in understanding the impact of emotion on memory and other cognitive processes is the considerable, but variable, comorbidity of depression with anxiety. The majority of studies of either depression or anxiety have not taken this comorbidity into consideration, nor have they distinguished between types of anxiety such as anxious apprehension and anxious arousal.