“Emotion”( qing) occupied a central position in the pre-Qin Confucian theory of human nature，while has been marginalized since the Han dynasty. Based on the newly discovered materials and the handed down literature, this paper makes a dialectical analysis of the position and significance of emotion in the Confucian theory of human nature, expounds the original meaning of the theory and reveals the differences between it and the binary pattern of Neo-Confucianism. The earliest Confucian theory of human nature is based on the discussion of emotion. Both the theories of good nature and evil nature are products of the evolution of theory of emotions. The formation of the theory of emotions is based on the origin of human beings. It is characterized by two ideas，i. e. that human nature and... emotions share the same origin and that human nature corresponds with emotions. Thus, emotion becomes transcendent，which is significantly different from the pre-Qin Confucian thought interpreted by Neo-Confucianism and New-Confucianism. The earliest Confucian theory of human nature is not an investigation of the knowledge of human nature but an exploration of the value roots. Thereby, it provides the basis for and echoes with the theory of cultivation. Therefore, revealing the inherent relationship between the theory of human nature and the theory of cultivation is of unique significance for discussing the Confucian theory of human nature.