The paper presents micromorphology of the cypselae of Xeranthemum cylindraceum as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their fatty acid composition as determined on a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The cypselae are densely hairy, straight, ribbed, narrowly obconical to obovoid. Micromorphological features are as follows: striate-rugose surface; adaxial detachment area; asymmetrical carpopodium; presence of nonglandular, shortly forked twin hairs; and absence of a pericarp crown. The pappus is paleaceous, homomorphic, uniseriate, persistent, and with several wide, scarious, subulate, and apically pinnulate bristles of variable length. Out of 12 fatty acids detected, nine (88.57%) are identified, ranging from palmitoleic (C16:1) to behenic... (C22:0) acids. Oleic acid is dominant (55.24%). Unsaturated fatty acids are predominant in the oil (75.02%). The composition of fatty acids in cypselae of the given species is here reported for the first time. The taxonomic value of the analysed characters is briefly discussed.