The authors draws the attention of anatomists, anthropologists and specialists who study the problem of medical anthropology, that there is the fact a discrepancy definition and understanding of the term «medical anthropology» from the standpoint of Russian and foreign scientific and expert practice. The authors noted that the lack of common terminology and unambiguous interpretation in the field of scientific problems of medical anthropology could be one of factors hampering the development of medical anthropological research. In the framework of medical anthropology is developing three major theoretical and applied areas, such as medical ecology and paleomedicine, ethnomedicine, and applied medical anthropology. However, Russian specialists in the field of human morphology, as a medical... anthropology mean applied anatomical studies on humans, performed using anthropological methods. The actual content of the term - an anthropological perspective on medicine and health systems, as a phenomenon, a social institution, to health and illness, through the prism of the methodology of teaching about human variation, but not “medical view” of anthropology, as science, subordinate to the medical interests, that takes place at this time. Attempts to instill on Russian scientific field the English-speaking countries medical anthropology, and is taught as a medical anthropology the some sections of human anatomy, or the bringing into service the new research directions as biomedical anthropology, biosocial anthropology, integration anthropology were unsuccessful. In this regard, analyzed the contents of official documents, according to which assesses the qualifications of scientific publications in the specialty in fields of medical anthropology and a number of scientific papers and dissertations in this direction and their dynamics over the past decade. The authors believe that a clear definition of terms in the field of medical anthropology related scientific fields could significantly affect the prospects for its further development.