This paper addresses the trends and challenges of 2015 for social and economic policy in the near future. The analysis of the global crisis includes uneven developments between the leading advanced and emerging economies, new models of economic growth that look differently across different countries, the prospects of globalization and the challenges of “regional globalization,” currency configurations of the future, and energy price trends and their influence on the political and economic prospects of particular states. The current challenges are discussed in the context of the previous 30 years. Among the main topics on Russia, there are approaches to a new growth model, structural transformation (including import-substitution issues), economic trends, budget and monetary outlines, and... social issues. Priorities for economic policy are also a topic of discussion.