The unprecedented decline in poverty rates in China, and to a lesser extent, in India, has been accompanied by a sharp increase in income inequality, including new forms of impoverishment and destitution. What explains this paradoxical outcome where high GDP growth that has helped reduce absolute poverty has also resulted in widening income inequalities? What are the potential socioeconomic and political implications? And, how best to mitigate and reverse this growing socioeconomic polarization and promote more inclusive and balanced economic growth? This paper addresses these interrelated questions.