Abstract Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of preterm birth in aunit of the public health network. Methods: A retrospective study involving the analysis of records of 94 newborns bornbefore 37 completed weeks of gestation and those of their respectivemothers. For investigation, data regarding maternal socioeconomicconditions, the presence of intercurrent gestational diseases, theoccurrence of aggravating perinatal events, the birth conditions and theneonatal complications were observed. Results: Most of the pregnant women studied were between the ages of 15 and 35 years,had between 4 and 7 years of schooling and lived in urban areas. 95% of thepregnancies were single fetus, and the prevalence of hypertension anddiabetes was 12% and 6%, respectively.... Premature membrane rupture occurredin 25% of cases, maternal genitourinary tract infections in 27%, andchorioamnionitis in 5%. Most neonates weighed between 1,000 and 2,499 gramsat birth. The most common complication was neonatal infection (32%),especially early sepsis, which was more common among preterm infants oflower gestational age and weight, and also in those whose mothers had someinfection during pregnancy. Other relevant neonatal outcomes wererespiratory changes (27%) and jaundice (26%). There were 26 deaths in thesample studied. Conclusions: Preventing prematurity and its consequences requires knowledge andmonitoring of risk factors.