Rakesh Yadav, Pankaj Vaidya, Joseph L Mathew, Sanjay Verma, Rajiv Khaneja, Priyanka Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar, Meenu Singh, Sunil Sethi
||Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 2020
Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in children still remains a challenge in developing countries. We analyze the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pediatric TB under programmatic conditions. We retrospectively analyzed the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay from February 2016 to March 2018. A total 2678 samples from TB suspects below 14 years were received in the laboratory and were frontline tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions. If sample was sufficient, the smear microscopy and culture were performed as per standard World Health Organization’s guidelines. The smears and cultures were performed in 2178 and 588 samples, respectively. Among 2678 samples, 68 were rejected, Xpert MTB/RIF assay was positive in 357/2610 (13.6%) cases, while... the smear was positive in 81/2178 (3.3%) cases. The sensitivity of smear and Xpert MTB/RIF when compared with culture was 24.6% (14.1–37.8%) and 81% (68.6–90.1%), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and smear was 97.1% and 92.2%, respectively. Thirty samples (8.5%) were detected as rifampicin resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The Xpert MTB/RIF increased the detection rate up to fourfold when compared with smear microscopy. Xpert MTB/RIF assay is the most rapid, sensitive, and specific method for microbiological confirmation and rifampicin resistance detection in pediatric tuberculosis.