Bladder cancer is a complex disease and could be classified into non-muscleinvasive or muscle-invasive subtypes according to the distinct genetic background and clinical prognosis. It is necessary to find a non-invasive, economical, and efficient method for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Translational medicine provides such an opportunity. Genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, and bioinformatics that aid in studying and exploring the mechanism of bladder cancer development, bladder cancerrelated genes, signaling pathways, key molecules, or targets can be clearly used for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Biomarkers have been developed as part of a new detection kit for the early screening, diagnosis, and recurrence monitoring of bladder cancer through... translational medicine. In addition, targeted drugs and immunological preparations can be used for the treatment of bladder cancer and further improve its existing diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.