S Biswas, B Feng, A Thomas, S Chen, E Aref-Eshghi, B Sadikovic, S Chakrabarti
||Physiological Research, 2018, Vol.67 , pp.S115-S125
Endothelial cells (ECs) are primary targets of glucose-induced tissue damage. As a result of hyperglycemia, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is upregulated in organs affected by chronic diabetic complications. The objective of the present study was to identify novel transcriptional mechanisms that influence ET-1 regulation in diabetes. We carried out the investigation in microvascular ECs using multiple approaches. ECs were incubated with 5 mM glucose (NG) or 25 mM glucose (HG) and analyses for DNA methylation, histone methylation, or long non-coding RNA- mediated regulation of ET-1 mRNA were then performed. DNA methylation array analyses demonstrated the presence of hypomethylation in the proximal promoter and 5' UTR/first exon regions of EDN1 following HG culture. Further, globally blocking DNA... methylation or histone methylation significantly increased ET-1 mRNA expressions in both NG and HG-treated HRECs. While, knocking down the pathogenetic lncRNAs ANRIL, MALAT1, and ZFAS1 subsequently prevented the glucose-induced upregulation of ET-1 transcripts. Based on our past and present findings, we present a novel paradigm that reveals a complex web of epigenetic mechanisms regulating glucose-induced transcription of ET-1. Improving our understanding of such processes may lead to better targeted therapies.