Abstract(#br) Background(#br)Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited.(#br) Methods(#br)We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).(#br)... Results(#br)Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes ( r 2 = 0.637). Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017).(#br) Conclusions(#br)Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.