Abstract(#br)Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors that may impair crop productivity. A proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is performed in order to analyze the long-term salinity stress response of Thellungiella halophila , an Arabidopsis -related halophyte. Four-week-old seedlings are exposed to long-term salinity treatment. The total crude proteins are extracted from leaf blades, separated by 2-DE, stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and differentially displayed spots are identified by MALDI-TOF MS or QTOF MS/MS. Among 900 protein spots reproducibly detected on each gel, 30 spots exhibit significant change and some of them are identified. The identified proteins include not only some previously characterized stress-responsive proteins such... as TIR-NBS-LRR class disease resistance protein, ferritin-1, and pathogenesis-related protein 5, but also some proteins related to energy pathway, metabolism, RNA processing and protein degradation, as well as proteins with unknown functions. The possible functions of these proteins in salinity tolerance of T. halophila are discussed and it is suggested that the long-term salinity tolerance of T. halophila is achieved, at least partly, by enhancing defense system, adjusting energy and metabolic pathway and maintaining RNA structure.