The Nanling and adjacent regions of South China host a series of tin deposits related to Mesozoic granites with diverse petrological characteristics. The rocks are amphibole-bearing biotite granites, or (topaz-) albite-lepidolite (zinnwaldite) granites, and geochemically correspond to mealuminous and peraluminous types, respectively. Mineralogical studies demonstrate highly distinctive and critical patterns for each type of granites. In mealuminous tin granites amphibole, biotite and perthite are the typical rock-forming mineral association; titanite and magnetite are typical accessory minerals, indicating high f O2 magmatic conditions; cassiterite, biotite and titanite are the principal Sn-bearing minerals; and pure cassiterite has low trace-element contents. However, in... peraluminous tin granites zinnwaldite-lepidolite, K-feldspar and albite are typical rock-forming minerals; topaz is a common accessory phase, indicative of high peraluminity of this type of granites; cassiterite is present as a uniquely important tin mineral, typically rich in Nb and Ta. Mineralogical distinction between the two types of tin granites is largely controlled by redox state, volatile content and differentiation of magmatic melts. In oxidized metaluminous granitic melts, Sn4+ is readily concentrated in Ti-bearing rock-forming and accessory minerals. Such Sn-bearing minerals are typical of oxidized tin granites, and are enriched in granites at the late fractionation stage. In relatively reduced peraluminous granitic melts, Sn2+ is not readily incorporated into rock-forming and accessory minerals, except for cassiterite at fractionation stage of granite magma, which serves as an indicator of tin mineralization associated with this type of granites. The nature of magma and the geochemical behavior of tin in the two types of granites thus result in the formation of different types of tin deposits. Metaluminous granites host disseminated tin mineralization, and are locally related to deposits of the chlorite quartz-vein, greisen, and skarn types. Greisen, skarn, and quartz-vein tin deposits can occur related to peraluminous granites, but disseminated mineralization of cassiterite is more typical.