R. Majeski, L. Berzak, T. Gray, R. Kaita, T. Kozub, F. Levinton, D.P. Lundberg, J. Manickam, G.V. Pereverzev, K. Snieckus, V. Soukhanovskii, J. Spaleta, D. Stotler, T. Strickler, J. Timberlake, J. Yoo, L. Zakharov
||Nuclear Fusion, 2009, Vol.49 (5), pp.055014 (7pp)
||Institute of Physics Journal
Use of a large-area liquid lithium limiter in the CDX-U tokamak produced the largest relative increase (an enhancement factor of 5–10) in Ohmic tokamak confinement ever observed. The confinement results from CDX-U do not agree with existing scaling laws, and cannot easily be projected to the new lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). Numerical simulations of CDX-U low recycling discharges have now been performed with the ASTRA-ESC code with a special reference transport model suitable for a diffusion-based confinement regime, incorporating boundary conditions for nonrecycling walls, with fuelling via edge gas puffing. This model has been successful at reproducing the experimental values of the energy confinement (4–6 ms), loop voltage (<0.5 V), and density for a typical CDX-U lithium... discharge. The same transport model has also been used to project the performance of the LTX, in Ohmic operation, or with modest neutral beam injection (NBI). NBI in LTX, with a low recycling wall of liquid lithium, is predicted to result in core electron and ion temperatures of 1–2 keV, and energy confinement times in excess of 50 ms. Finally, the unique design features of LTX are summarized.