Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by total mesorectal excision is now recommended for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). This retrospective study was aimed to analyze the treatment efficacy in LARC patients in a single institute. Materials and Methods: Rectal cancer patients with clinically T3, T4, or nodal positive (N1-2) diseases who received either NCRT or adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ACRT) were retrospectively enrolled between 2007 and 2011. The treatment outcome and clinical characteristics of study population were compared. Results: There were 176 patients been enrolled with a mean age of 63.1 years. Totally, 123 (69.9%) patients received NCRT and 53 (30.1%) patients received ACRT, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was 43.3... months in NCRT group and 47.6 months in ACRT group. There was no significant difference about overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS) between two treatment groups. However, NCRT achieved pathological complete remission (pCR) of 27.6%. In addition, the patients with pathologically downstage after NCRT (the responders) had significantly better PFS (P ＜ 0.0001), local RFS (P=0.0468), and OS (P=0.0045), compared with non-responder after NCRT. Oxaliplatin-based NCRT did not significantly increase treatment response, OS and PFS, compared with other regimens in our analysis (P=0.29). Conclusions: In our cohort, NCRT achieved high pCR rate than those reported in previous literature. Although there was no significant improvement of OS, PFS, and LRFS in NCRT group, there was a significant improvement of LRFS, OS, and PFS in those responders after NCRT.