The State Council has for a long time acknowledged the primacy of international contracts, in particular contracts of the European Union, exclusively over the laws passed earlier. In retrospect after the decision of the Constitutional Council Val d�Oise elections (Elections du Val d�Oise) and accepting the conclusions of public reporter Frydman, the State Council changed its court practice with the Nicolo judgement acknowledging the primacy of contracts of the European Union, as well as classic international contracts, even over laws passed after them. Furthermore, in contrast to Kasacian Court judgements, explanation of the State Council neglects the argument of the specifics of European constitutional order and only calls upon article 55 of the Constitution stating the reciprocity... clause. Thereby the administrative judge je recognised the primacy of European acts of secondary law, i.e.: regulation, directive, and general principles of European law.