Purpose . To highlight the prevalence of selected ophthalmic diseases accidentally discovered at first-time screening of a large sample of patients from the Middle East and North Africa visiting a large referral university hospital checkup unit based in Cairo. Material and Methods . A cross-sectional study of two thousand and thirteen subjects coming for routine ophthalmic medical checkups from different Middle East countries (mainly Egypt, Sudan, and Yemen). Patients were evaluated for prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, cataract, and amblyopia. Patients’ demographic data and medical history were collected. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed. Investigations were done when needed to confirm suspected conditions. Results . The study included 1149... males and 864 females. 652 Sudanese patients, 568 Yemeni patients, 713 Egyptian patients, and 63 patients from different Gulf and North African countries like Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Libya, and Jordan. Sudanese patients showed a higher percentage of glaucoma (13.3%) and ocular hypertension (8.3%). Yemeni patients showed the highest prevalence of amblyopia (6.7%), diabetic retinopathy (8.6%), and cataract (4.2%). The group of relatively higher economic classification seemed to show fewer prevalences of these ophthalmic conditions. Yemeni patients tended to have a high percentage of persistent myelinated nerve fibers. Conclusion . Different ophthalmic conditions were discovered for the first time at the general checkup clinic. Certain conditions were more common than others in certain countries. The lack of regular checkups and the unavailability of medical services due to low to moderate socioeconomic status as well as political turbulence may account for the delay in initial diagnosis of many treatable conditions.