Formaldehyde is a volatile chemical compound that is commonly used in the chemical industry. Formaldehyde inhalation exposure has been associated with cancer, respiratory diseases, digestive and neurological disorders. Oxidative stress is one of the potential mechanisms by which formaldehyde inhalation induces toxicity. Curcumin is a natural compound endowed with antioxidant properties and my thus prevent formaldehyde-induced toxicity. This study aimed to examine the effects of formaldehyde inhalation on renal function and kidney structure of mice; the potential protective effects of curcumin administration against kidney dysfunction, renal damage and oxidative stress were also investigated. Formaldehyde inhalation induced renal dysfunction and damage, as shown by the increase of serum... creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and caused histological damage associated with proteinaceous and granular cast formation in renal tubular lumen. The activity of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged and malondialdehyde levels increased in a discrete and statistically non-significant way. Curcumin treatment prevented the above-described alterations by preventing an increase in renal dysfunction and changes in the kidney structure of mice. Therefore, curcumin can be a potentially useful treatment against the effects induced by exposure to gaseous pollutants such as formaldehyde in distal organs.