The pyrolysis characteristic of raw and ultrasound assisted enzyme hydrolysis treated (UAEH) olive waste was investigated using the thermogravimetric analysis at 5, 10, 15, and 20°C per minute in the nitrogen atmosphere. The thermal decomposition was divided into three stages in the thermograph curve, and the thermogravimetric curve showed the same decomposition trend for two samples. The temperature interval and peak temperature were different for two different samples, and moved to higher temperature with the increase in heating rate. Differential thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry curves depicted that the structure and composition of samples were changed by UAEH. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters were calculated by the Kissinger, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose,... Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Coats-Redfern methods. For untreated and treated olive waste, the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods revealed the similar kinetic characteristics for the conversion degree from 0.1 to 0.9, and the average values of activation energy were 201.42 kJ/mol and 162.97 kJ/mol, respectively. The change in activation energy was clearly dependent on the extent of conversion. The Coats-Redfern method suggested the second-order model (F2, f(α) = (1 – α)2) could be used to better describe the thermal decomposition mechanism of untreated and treated olive waste. Besides, thermodynamic characteristics of olive waste treated were consistent with that of the untreated sample.