This article reviews studies on teaching Chinese as a second or foreign language (CSL/CFL) inside and outside Mainland China. In the review process, we analyzed a total of 1358 Chinese language articles and 175 English language articles from CNKI (中国知网) and Web of Science, respectively, during the period from 2004 to 2016. By analyzing the frequency and the co-occurrence of keywords in these articles, this review identifies the development trajectories and topical trends of Chinese language education research in mainland Chinese and international journals. The review also highlights both researchers and institutions that contributed significantly to research on CSL/CFL teaching and learning. As revealed through the analysis, researchers in and outside mainland China focus on different... research issues with different perspectives, while few cross-border research collaborations are observed among the leading researchers and(or) institutions in this field. Consequently, we conclude this review with suggestions for researchers in mainland China and other contexts, journals, and institutions for promoting transnational-collaboration research to support the development of Chinese language education.