A large proportion of existing building and bridge infrastructure across the world consists of seismically deficient non-ductile structural systems. Performance of structures during recent earthquakes have demonstrated seismic vulnerability of these systems, the majority of which were designed prior to the enactment of modern seismic codes, though some were designed more recently in areas where code enforcement provides challenges. These structures constitute considerable seismic risk, especially in large metropolitan centres. Because it is economically not feasible to replace a large segment of seismically deficient infrastructure with new and improved systems, retrofitting existing structures remains to be a viable seismic risk mitigation strategy. The objective of this paper is to... highlight seismic retrofit strategies for deficient building and bridge infrastructures, with emphasis on experimental and analytical research conducted at the University of Ottawa. The retrofit strategies consist of structural upgrades at the system level, as well as at the element level. Non-ductile reinforced concrete frame retrofits, in the form of lateral bracing techniques, and concrete column and masonry wall retrofit methodologies are discussed. The use of innovative materials and techniques are presented.