To investigate the effect of Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) onadiponect and glucose transporter 4 (GluT4) expression intype 2 diabetic rats. 10 healthy control subjects (group A,n=10) were randomly selected from a total of 40 male SDrats. They were fed with normal diet. The remaining 30 ratswere fed with high-fat and high sugar diet, then the modelof type 2 diabetic rats was induced by intraperitonealinjection with small dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The modelof type 2 diabetic rats was randomly divided into diabeticcontrol group (group B, n=11) and diabetic hyperbaric oxygentherapy group (group C, n=10). Group C was treated withhyperbaric oxygen for 30 days. After the experiment, theserum and the specimens were obtained. Serum adiponectin,fasting insulin (FINS) and GluT4 were detected by ELISA... kit.Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low densitylipoprotein (LDL-C), cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG)were detected with a full automatic biochemical analyzer.The expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) proteinin liver specimens were analysised by immunohistochemicalmethods. Compared with group A, fasting blood glucose(FBG),30 minutes postprandial blood sugar, 60 minutes postprandialblood glucose, 120 minutes postprandial blood glucose, TG,TC, LDL-C, FINS, AdipoR2 in group B and group C increasedsignificantly. HDL-C, adiponectin, Glut4 expression andinsulin sensitivity decreased significantly. The differencewas statistically significant (P<0.05). Group C rats weretreated with hyperbaric oxygen for 30 days, then comparedwith group B rats: FBG, 120 minutes postprandial bloodsugar, FINS,TG, AdipoR2 significantly decreased HDL-C,adiponectin, Glut4 expression and insulin sensitivityncreased significantly. Therefore, the difference wasstatistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level ofadiponectin and GluT4 in type 2 diabetic rats was lower thanthat of normal rats. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 30 dayscan improve the content of adiponectin in diabetic rats,increase the expression level of GluT4, promote theoxidation of glucose in the liver increase the uptake ofglucose in the cell, lower blood sugar and improve thesensitivity of insulin.