OBJECTIVE:: Delineate the effects of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on self-regulated learning and academic achievement for university-enrolled military Service members. PARTICIPANTS:: Students (N = 192) from 8 regionally diverse universities, representing an estimated 6% of Service members enrolled across schools. SETTING:: Public universities that are members of the Servicemember Opportunity College consortium. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional study evaluating the relationships between self-reported TBI, PTSD, and self-regulated learning variables and their contribution to academic achievement. MAIN MEASURES:: Self-report of military service; symptoms of TBI and PTSD; self-regulation strategies including effort, time/environment regulation,... and academic self-efficacy; and grade point average (GPA). RESULTS:: There was no effect of self-reported TBI or PTSD on GPA, effort regulation, or time/environment regulation strategies; however, participants with TBI or PTSD reported significantly lower academic self-efficacy. Multiple regression analysis revealed self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of GPA among all participants, followed by military rank. CONCLUSION:: The sample consisted of high achieving students responsive to a university administrator, which raises the possibility of sampling bias. Because of the low recruitment rate for this study and lack of published research on this subject, replicating the results is necessary before drawing generalizable conclusions about the population.