The goal of the study is to describe the local socio-economic importance of the fisheries of swimming crabs Callinectes amnicola De Rochebrune (Decapoda Portunidae) of the Aby lagoon in Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa). In this context, several villages bordering the lagoon were studied from 2001 to 2009 and finally, in 2012. The results indicated that total production decreased from 3742 tons in 2006 to 1,449 tons in 2011 with an average of 2,596 tons of swimming crabs. This activity directly involved in 2012, 365 young fishermen, 6 collector women and 6 wholesaler women. Besides that, there is no traditional /customary resource management and the administration has no special policy for the fishing of swimming crabs. The activity is a source of income since it provided during the high/good... season to the fisherman an average net monthly income ranging between 336,338 FCFA (Assomlan) to 122,033 FCFA (Man-Man) and during the low/bad season the income fluctuated between 53,760 FCFA and 160,867 FCFA M'Bratty to Epleman. The monthly income of the wholesale/crab merchant during the high/good season was 527,583 FCFA and during low/bad season was 497 583 FCFA. Finally, crabbing contributed to increasing local own resources through the various taxes levied on markets and transport, social cohesion and improving the welfare of local residents.